Friday, September 10, 2010

Leukemia- one of bad cancer

Leukemia is a disease that refers to a group of blood diseases characterized by cancer of the tissues that produce blood.
In more detail, the leukemia is a diverse group of neoplastic diseases, characterized by an abnormal multiplication or malignant or malignant transformation of blood-forming cells in bone marrow and lymphoid tissue. Normal cells in the bone marrow was replaced by normal or abnormal cells. These abnormal cells from the marrow and can be found in the peripheral blood or peripheral blood. Leukemia cells affecting hematopoiesis or blood cell formation process is normal and the patient's body immunity.
Leukemia can be classified on the basis of a natural way of disease: acute and chronic. Acute leukemia is marked by a very rapid course of the disease, deadly, and worse. If not treated immediately, the patient can die within weeks to days. While chronic leukemia have a disease that does not travel so quickly that it has a longer life expectancy, up to more than one year.

The cause of leukemia is not known with certainty,
but note several factors that can affect the frequency of leukemia, such as:
1. Radiation
2. Factor leukemogenik
There are several chemicals that have been identified may affect the frequency of leukemia:
• environmental toxins such as benzene
• industrial chemicals such as insecticides
• Drugs for chemotherapy
3. Epidemiology
• In Africa, 10-20% patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (LMA) has kloroma around orbital eye
• In Kenya, China, and India, Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) of patients aged 20-40 years
• In East Asians and East Indians Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is rarely encountered (LLK).
4. Hereditary
Down syndrome patients have acute leukemia incidence 20 times greater than normal people.
5. Virus
Viruses such as retroviruses can cause leukemia and feline leukemia virus.

Clinical symptoms
In acute leukemia showed clinical symptoms caused by:
1. Bone marrow failure, among others: pallor, lethargy, fever, mouth infection picture, tenggorakan, skin respiration, bruising, spontaneous bleeding gums, and pendarahanan from venous function caused by thrombocytopenia.
2. Infiltration of other organs, ie bone pain, hypertrophy and infiltration of the gums, headache, vomiting, blurred vision and swelling of the testes sometimes occurs in mediastum lla and sign emphasis (especially at lla).
According Mediarty, chronic leukemia includes two main types of chronic myelogenous leukemia granulositik chronic (CML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (LLK). Other chronic types including hair cell leukemia (hairy cell leukemia, leukemia prolimfositik) and various syndromes mielodisplastik that some regarded as a form of chronic leukemia.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia having clinical symptoms are:
1. Weight loss, weakness, anorexia, and night sweats.
2. Splenomegali there is almost always accompanied by large and often less frequently malaise, pain, feeling full in the stomach or indigestion.
3. Overview of anemia, including pale and limp.
4. Sometimes there is bruising and bleeding from other places.
5. Often found on the sternum tenderness and hepatomegaly.
6. Visual impairment.

Acute leukemia can be diagnosed through several means, such as:
• Examination of morphology: peripheral blood, bone marrow aspiration, bone marrow biopsy
• Tint sitokimia
• Immunofenotipe
• Cytogenetics
• Molecular Diagnostis

Treatment of acute blood cancer (acute leukemia) according Mediayarti curative or palliative aims:
Curative treatment includes:
1. Siteroduksi with the drug combination cytostatica cytostatica ranging from mild to aggressive with the need of "rescue" the patient's blood iduh cells from peripheral blood to rescue the bone marrow ablation.
2. Allogeni blood stem cell transplantation or autologous bone from marrow, peripheral blood or umbilical cord.
3. Supportive, through blood transfusion, vitamin B6 and 12, iron, adequate nutrition, antibiotics and anti-fungal if there is any indication.
While the treatment of chronic leukemia depends on the type and phase or stage where the patient is found. 

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